R. M. Field and K. L. Shepard, “A 100-fps Fluorescence Lifetime Imager in Standard 0.13-μm CMOS,” Symposium on VLSI Circuits, 2013.

A wide-field fluorescence lifetime imager capable of up to 100 frames per second (fps) is presented. The imager consists of a64-by-64 array of low-noise single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in a standard 0.13-micron CMOS process, 4096 time-to- digital converters, and an application specific data path to enable continuous image acquisition at a total output data rate of 42 Gbps. These features combine to enable new lifetime-based diagnostic imaging.