R. M. Field, J. Lary, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Applied Physcis Letters, 97, 211111 (2010).

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We present the design and characterization of a single-photon avalanche diode SPAD fabricated with a standard 0.13 m complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. We have developed a figure of merit for SPADs when these detectors are employed in high frame-rate fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy, which allows us to specify an optimal bias point for the diode and compare our diode with other published devices. At its optimum bias point at room temperature, our SPAD achieves a photon detection probability of 29% while exhibiting a dark count rate of only 231 Hz and an impulse response of 198 ps.