T.D Huang, S. Sorgenfrei, P. Gong, R. Levicky, K.L. Shepard, “A 0.18-um CMOS Array Sensor for Integrated Time-Resolved Fluorescence Detection,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 44, 5, (May 2009), pp. 1644-1654.

This paper describes the design of an active, integrated CMOS sensor array for fluorescence applications which enables time-gated, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The 64-by-64 array is sensitive to photon densities as low as 8×8 x 106 photons/cm with 64-point averaging and, through a differential pixel design, has a measured impulse response of better than 800 ps. Applications include both active microarrays and high-frame-rate imagers for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.