T.-C. Huang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. L. Shepard, P. Gong, and R. Levicky, “A CMOS array sensor for sub-800-ps time-resolved fluorescence detection” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2007.

This paper describes the design of an active CMOS sensor array for fluorescence applications which enables timegated, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The 64 x 64 array is sensitive to photon densities as low as 8 x 106 photons/ cm2 with 64-point averaging and, through a differential pixel design, has a measured impulse response of better than 800 ps. Applications include both active microarrays and high-frame-rate imagers for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.