While chemical vapor deposition (CVD) promises a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior electronic properties in comparison with exfoliated samples. Here we test the electrical transport properties of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing-induced contamination, are substantially reduced. We grow CVD graphene with grain sizes up to 250 μm to abate grain boundaries, and we transfer graphene utilizing a novel, dry-transfer method to minimize chemical contamination. We fabricate devices on both silicon dioxide and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) dielectrics to probe the effects of substrate-induced disorder. On both substrate types, the large-grain CVD graphene samples are comparable in quality to the best reported exfoliated samples, as determined by low-temperature electrical transport and magnetotransport measurements. Small-grain samples exhibit much greater variation in quality and inferior performance by multiple measures, even in samples exhibiting high field-effect mobility. These results confirm the possibility of achieving high-performance graphene devices based on a scalable synthesis process.