Cheng Tan, Derek Y. H. Ho, Lei Wang, Jia I. A. Li, Indra Yudhistira, Daniel A. Rhodes, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Kenneth Shepard, Paul L. McEuen, Cory R. Dean, Shaffique Adam, James Hone, “Dissipation-enabled hydrodynamic conductivity in a tunable bandgap semiconductor,” SCIENCE ADVANCES • 15 Apr 2022 • Vol 8, Issue 15

Electronic transport in the regime where carrier-carrier collisions are the dominant scattering mechanism has taken on new relevance with the advent of ultraclean two-dimensional materials. Here, we present a combined theoretical and experimental study of ambipolar hydrodynamic transport in bilayer graphene demonstrating that the conductivity is given by the sum of two Drude-like terms that describe relative motion between electrons and holes, and the collective motion of the electron-hole plasma. As predicted, the measured conductivity of gapless, charge-neutral bilayer graphene is sample- and temperature-independent over a wide range. Away from neutrality, the electron-hole conductivity collapses to a single curve, and a set of just four fitting parameters provides quantitative agreement between theory and experiment at all densities, temperatures, and gaps measured. This work validates recent theories for dissipation-enabled hydrodynamic conductivity and creates a link between semiconductor physics and the emerging field of viscous electronics.