Adriaan J. Taal, Ilke Uguz, , Sabina Hillebrandt, Chang-Ki Moon, Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Jaebin Choi, Changmin Keum, Karl Deisseroth, Malte C. Gather& Kenneth L. Shepard Optogenetic stimulation probes with single-neuron resolution based on organic LEDs monolithically integrated on CMOS. Nature Electronics, August 12, 2023.

The use of optogenetic stimulation to evoke neuronal activity in targeted neural populations—enabled by opsins with fast kinetics, high sensitivity and cell-type and subcellular specificity—is a powerful tool in neuroscience. However, to interface with the opsins, deep-brain light delivery systems are required that match the scale of the spatial and temporal control offered by the molecular actuators. Here we show that organic light-emitting diodes can be combined with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology to create bright, actively multiplexed emissive elements. We create implantable shanks in which 1,024 individually addressable organic light-emitting diode pixels with a 24.5 µm pitch are integrated with active complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor drive and control circuitry. This integration is enabled by controlled electrode conditioning, monolithic deposition of the organic light-emitting diodes and optimized thin-film encapsulation. The resulting probes can be used to access brain regions as deep as 5 mm and selectively activate individual neurons with millisecond-level precision in mice.