N. Lei, S. Ramamkrishnan, P. Shi, J. S. Orcutt, R. Yuste, L. C. Kam, and K. L. Shepard, “High-resolution extracellular stimulation of dispersed hippocampal culture with high-density CMOS multielectrode array based on non-Faradaic electrodes,” J. Neural Eng. 8 (2011) 044003.

We introduce a method to electrically stimulate individual neurons at single-cell resolution in arbitrary spatiotemporal patterns with precise control over stimulation thresholds. By exploiting a custom microelectronic chip, up to 65 000 non-Faradaic electrodes can be uniquely addressed with electrode density exceeding 6500 electrodes mm−2. We demonstrate extracellular stimulation of dispersed primary hippocampal neuronal cultures using the chip at single-cell resolution.